Audio cables are an essential part of any recording setup, yet they often get overlooked. This guide will delve into the world of audio cables, explaining their different types, uses, and how they can affect your recording quality.
Understanding Audio Cables
Analog vs Digital Signals
The first thing to understand about audio cables is the difference between analog and digital signals. Analog cables transmit information through a stream of electricity, while digital cables transmit information through a long string of 1’s and 0’s, also known as binary code.
The Basics of Analog Cables
In the recording studio, there are two types of analog cables: balanced and unbalanced. These cables are used to transfer three levels of audio signal: mic level (balanced), instrument level (unbalanced), and line level (balanced).
Balanced vs. Unbalanced Cables
Balanced cables are relatively immune to noise from interference such as radio frequencies and electronic equipment, making them the standard for professional audio. Unbalanced cables, on the other hand, have only two wires: signal and ground.
Analog Connectors Explained
On either end of a balanced analog cable, you will find one of three connectors: XLR Male, XLR Female, or TRS. Each of these connectors has three contact points which carry signals from the positive, negative, and ground wires.
TRS vs TS Connectors
TRS connectors have three contact points, allowing them to carry a balanced signal. TS connectors, on the other hand, have only two contact points and carry an unbalanced signal.
How Balanced Cables Cancel Noise
Balanced cables have a unique feature that allows them to cancel out noise. This is achieved by inverting the polarity of the negative wire, which, when recombined at the opposite end of the cable, cancels out the noise, leaving the original signal noise-free.
While analog cables are essential for transmitting audio signals, digital cables are equally important in a modern recording setup. They come in various types, including USB, Firewire, Thunderbolt, MIDI, Optical, BNC, and AES/EBU cables.
The Three Interface Cables
The digital cable that connects your audio interface to your computer is one of the most important cables in your setup. It could be a USB, Firewire, or Thunderbolt cable, depending on your interface and computer.
MIDI cables are used to transfer data between various electronic instruments and related digital devices. They communicate various types of musical information, including notes and velocity.
Optical cables, also known as lightpipe cables, can carry multiple channels of digital audio through a single cable. They accept two signals: ADAT, which carries eight channels at 48kHz or four channels at 96kHz, and S/PDIF, which carries two channels of audio.
BNC cables are used in the studio to sync the internal clocks of multiple digital devices. Without them, the digital devices cannot sync properly, resulting in misaligned samples and annoying clicks and pops in the audio.
AES/EBU cables use the XLR connectors of an analog mic cable to transmit the S/PDIF signal of a digital optical cable. They are often used on higher-end interfaces and other hardware.
Last but not least, power cables are essential for powering all your equipment. The most common type used in pro audio is the IEC C13.
Keeping your cables organized is crucial for maintaining a clean and efficient workspace. Using snake cables, cable winders, and even soldering your own cables can help keep your setup tidy and manageable.
In conclusion, understanding audio cables and their various types and uses is crucial for anyone involved in home recording. By knowing the differences between analog and digital, balanced and unbalanced, and the various types of connectors and cables, you can ensure the best possible audio quality for your recordings.