tl;dr: What are the requirements for a PD capable USB-C cable and plug?

As the USB-C plug/jack of my Dell charger is mechanically broken, I want to replace it.

So far, my naive attempt to simply replace the broken plug with one from a 4 pole USB-C to USB-A cable (see image below, connecting black-black, white-white, red-red, blue-green) has failed. It only yields +5 V (red against black), but it seems that no Power Delivery magic happens and the laptop does not charge.

I assume that the cable is not suitable for high power (maybe intended to only charge a 5 V USB-C device). Maybe the wiring is wrong. I wonder if the Dell cable/plug is somehow active – I have hoped that the PD logic would happen in the charger itself.

Also I struggle to find appropriate documentation. This is the best I can find.

What would be the requirements for a USB-C plug which can be used for Power Delivery? Also, how can I find out which PD version a device or a charger supports?

Howto repair broken USB-C Power Delivery cable?

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